Lec : 1; Modules / Lectures. This mix of equipment was not only cumbersome but also rather inflexible because the changing of control configurations necessitated changes in the routing of wires. The purpose of the DCS check-out is to verify that all the cabling connecting the DCS to the plant and the DCS internal TAG allocations are hooked up properly. NPTEL provides E-learning through online Web and Video courses various streams. a process unit, Small medium-sized applications with majority open/close control, Direct control, output directly to field actuators, With SCADA the connection with the field is done by third party hardware and software, Inter-related continuous complex processes, Batch processing with low level of process interaction, Robust hardware and software are the part of the equipment on the shop floor and are fixed, Operating system software and the processor used in a SCADA PC undergo quick changes due to heavy competition, Process computer on the shop floor and PCs in the control room, PLC platform for process control and a PC platform (SCADA) for display, Data acquisition is event driven, rely on change. Distributed Control System : With the advent of the microprocessor, true distributed-control systems became practical. Communication links should only be used for bypasses, status information, and the transmission of reports. These control systems operate by turning on and off switches, motors, valves, and other devices in response to operating conditions and as a function of time. If you have any doubts please refer to the JNTU Syllabus Book. Redundant control systems that consist of either a second computer or analog instruments are usually installed to protect against a total system shutdown, but these backups add greatly to the cost and complexity of the control. Depending on the process, dozens, even hundreds of machine set points and process variables may be observed through the interface. 20.17. The challenge of monitoring numerous process conditions over such large distances underscore the utility of a DCS. TEXT BOOK: 1. Gevork B. Gharehpetian, S. Mohammad Mousavi Agah, Distributed Generation Systems: Design, Operation and Grid Integration, Butterworth Heinemann, 2017 The process inputs are connected to the controllers directly or through IO bus systems such as Profibus, Foundation FieldBus, and so on. It also tracks process operations and product batch lots. control system design course onlinecourses nptel ac in. #NPTEL # SPECIAL_LECTURE_SERIES # LIVE_SESSION SPEAKER : Mr. Thejesh G... N,Senior Developer and Architect,Co-founder and chairman of DataMeet trust TOPIC: How to be a good software developer SPECIALIZATION:Thejesh GN “Thej” is an independent technologist, developer, hacker, maker, traveler, blogger and an open data/internet enthusiast from Bangalore, India. Fortunately the state of the art of control systems has rapidly evolved to the point where all of the control strategies described above can be embodied in a, Expensive hardware but engineering is comparatively cheaper, 200% cheaper than DCS Hardware is cheaper but engineering is expensive, Control and monitoring over small areas e.g. About us; Courses; Contact us; Courses; Electrical Engineering ; Industrial Automation and Control (Video) Syllabus; Co-ordinated by : IIT Kharagpur; Available from : 2009-12-31. Reddy, in Industrial Process Automation Systems, 2015. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128009390000061, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123869142000170, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128158173000198, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081006139000134, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323264365000102, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128160022000118, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780750662727500063, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781455725533000209, Dynamic Simulation of Gas Processing Plants, Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing, Process Modeling and Simulation of Gas Processing Plants, Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing (Fourth Edition), Instrumentation and Control Systems (Second Edition), Handbook of Fire and Explosion Protection Engineering Principles for Oil, Gas, Chemical, and Related Facilities (Fourth Edition), Practical E-Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management, Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering Handbook (Third Edition), As the knowledge of the physiology and reaction kinetics of biochemical processes has progressed and the measurement systems for monitoring their activity has improved, the need for sophisticated systems able to execute coordinated control strategies including batch has increased. A distributed control system (DCS) is a specially designed automated control system that consists of geographically distributed control elements over the plant or control area. Distributed control systems (DCSs) are computer-software packages communicating with control hardware and providing a centralized human–machine interface (HMI) for controlled equipment.1 Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) form the core of DCSs and other computer control systems. DCS are deployed today not only for all advanced control strategies but also for the low-level control loops. Distributed control system (DCS) check-out alone will not warrant the construction of a dynamic model of a plant. This indicates tension settings for the three unwinds and one rewind as well as four intermediate nip points. Redundancy is usually handled in a distributed manner. Basic Concepts; Distributed Coordination. Such systems are referred to as sequence/logic control systems. This includes hardware elements, system implementation philosophies, and the drivers behind this evolution. With advancing technologies, DCS have rapidly expanded their capabilities in terms of features, functions, performance and size. Distributed Control System continuously interacts with the processes in process control applications ones it gets instruction from the operator. Mod-01 Lec-19 Clock Synchronization in Distributed Real-Time Systems Mod-01 Lec-20 Internal Clock Synchronization in Presence of Byzantine Clocks Confirmation of ESD reset actions can be incorporated into the DCS but actual reset capability should not. Distributed control system (DCS) check-out alone will not warrant the construction of a dynamic model of a plant. digital control system ee 525 by nptel on iit guwahati. (Hint: look at the heating, air conditioning, toilet tank, and the most highly automated room, the kitchen. Field events can directly interrupt the system and advise the operator. DCS systems tend to have a hierarchy of controllers distributed through a plant and connected by a communications network for command and monitoring, whereas SCADAs have central control. The purpose of the DCS check-out is to verify that all the cabling connecting the DCS to the plant and the DCS internal TAG allocations are hooked up properly. Lec : 1; Modules / Lectures. Mehta, Y.J. Computational methods Nonlinear systems/robustness (ISS, IQCs, polynomial systems, SoS, etc.) Course Outline Nptel Control Theory Control Engineering. In the beginning, plants used local, large-case pneumatic controllers; these later became miniaturized andcentralized onto control panels and consoles. instrumentation and control systems nptel dorith de. Mod-01 Lec-18 Real-Time Task Scheduling on Multiprocessors and Distributed Systems (Contd.) They use digital encoding and transmission of process information and commands. Distributed Systems Pdf Notes Lec 1 Introduction To Control Problem YouTube. Embedded Systems surround us in the form of gadgets and devices that we use. The ‘quality’ of the data shown to the operator is an important facet of SCADA system operation. Process control, which is responsible for translating the information collected from the process interface subsystem and determining the signals to be sent to the process interface subsystem based on preprogrammed algorithms and rules set in its memory. The goals of DCS and SCADA are quite different. Basic concepts. Usually scaled to approximate physical time t, … courses. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Multiple Choice Questions and Answers on Control Systems Multiple Choice Questions and Answers By Sasmita January 9, 2020 1) Which terminology deals with the excitation or stimulus applied to the system from an external source for the generation of an output? This will help tremendously in verifying the logical connections inside the DCS. Certificate will have your name, photograph and the score in the final exam with the breakup.It will have the logos of NPTEL and IIT Madras .It will be e-verifiable at nptel.ac.in/noc. NPTEL provides E-learning through online Web and Video courses various streams. nptel electrical engineering nonlinear control system. It usually involves a computer that communicates with control elements distributed throughout the plant or process, e.g. Lecture Series on Control Engineering by Prof. Ramkrishna Pasumarthy, Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Madras. The integration of these systems into a cohesive whole has dramatically increased the level of automation possible to improve the quality, productivity and economics of manufacturing. DSC screen of tension settings and readings on tandem extrusion laminator/coater. The SCADA needs to get secure data and control over a potentially slow, unreliable communications medium and needs to maintain a database of ‘last known good values’ for prompt operator display. William Bolton, in Instrumentation and Control Systems (Second Edition), 2015. machine or process controllers and PLCs, through a bus or directly and displays gathered data. Tag: distributed control system nptel PLC Connection between Instrument, Junction Box, Marshalling & System Cabinet S Bharadwaj Reddy January 3, 2019 April 23, 2020 The following system characteristics give some relevant features of the average systems. But if a model is available, the modifications required for running a DCS check-out are relatively small. DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS Subject Code: CS732PE Regulations : R16 - JNTUH ... Concurrency Control in Distributed Transactions, Distributed Deadlocks, Transaction Recovery. The key system functions were designed to be redundant. What will the course teach? A DCS operator station is normally intimately connected with its I/O (through local wiring, fieldbus, networks, etc.). distributed control system nptel archives. Correspond to counter register H(t) ! Saeid Mokhatab, William A. Poe, in Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing, 2012. An essential feature of modern-day DCS is the integration with ERP and IT systems through exchange of various pieces of information. This will help tremendously in verifying the logical connections inside the DCS. 1.7 Interfacing computer system with process 19 1.8 Economics of computer based system for industrial application 24 Chapter 2—Overview of Distributed Control Systems 25 2.1 Introduction 25 2.2 Basic concepts of Distributed Computing 26 2.3 Evolution of Distributed Computing System 27 2.4 Present market trends in DCS 31 Some systems also use proprietary field bus systems. NPTEL provides E-learning through online Web and Video courses various streams. Communication technology such as Ethernet and TCP/UDP/IP combined with standards such as OPC allowed third-party applications to be integrated into the control system. It has become common for DCS vendors to think they can do SCADA because the system specifications seem so similar, but a few requirements paragraphs about data availability and update processing separate a viable SCADA system from one that would work OK but for the real world getting in the way. Dennis P. Nolan, in Handbook of Fire and Explosion Protection Engineering Principles for Oil, Gas, Chemical, and Related Facilities (Fourth Edition), 2019. l 30 ss iac ee nptel control system systems theory. Process operations, which is responsible for communicating with operations personnel at all levels including operator displays, alarms, trends of process variables and activities, summary reports, and operational instructions and guidelines. Applications engines, which are the repository for all of the programs and packages for the system from control, display and report configuration tools to program language compilers and program libraries to specialized packages such as database managers, spreadsheets and optimization or expert system packages to repositories for archived process information. This arrangement gave way in the 1970s to the distributed control system (DCS). Alternatively, failure of the ESD system should not prevent an operator from using the DCS to shutdown and isolate the facility. The SCADA database architecture is significantly different from the DCS data architecture. courses. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. But if a model is available, the modifications needed to be able to run a DCS checkout are relatively small. Control Systems Engineering Video Lectures From NPTEL IIT. Their appearance changed very little when analog electronic instruments were introduced. An example of a DCS system could be an oil refinery where there are a large number of control systems such as flow controllers which are closed-loop controllers by which valves are operated in order to obtain set values. These underlying differences prompt a series of design decisions that require a great deal more complexity in a SCADA system database and data-gathering system than is usually found in DCS. Kangasharju: Distributed Systems 5 Hardware/Software Clocks ! Obviously, a dynamic model will not be able to help with checking the physical cabling, but the signals from a dynamic model can replace the plant signals. Process interface, which is responsible for the collection of process data from measurement instruments and the issuing of signals to actuating devices such as pumps, motors and valves. The term DCS stands for distributed control system. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. With the advances in technology and the resulting overlapping functionality, these systems became less and less distinct. Industrial Automation and Control. Figure 20.17. Toggle navigation. Manufacturing industries either have DCS or SCADA/PLC systems. Distributed Control System Nptel Archives. John P. King, in Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering Handbook (Third Edition), 2014. L 01 SM IA Amp C EE NPTEL Automation Control System. SCADA systems often contain DCS components. NPTEL Electrical Engineering Control Engineering. Distributed, Parallel and cooperative computing, the meaning of Distributed computing, Examples of Distributed systems. About us ; Courses; Contact us; Courses; Electrical Engineering; NOC:DC Microgrid (Video) Syllabus; Co-ordinated by : IIT Roorkee; Available from : 2019-07-25; Lec : 1; Modules / Lectures. When the DCS operator wants to see information, he usually makes a request directly to the field I/O and gets a response. Figure 10.1 presents a DCS screen image from a tandem extrusion line. The nodes in the distributed systems can be arranged in the form of client/server systems or peer to peer systems. This transformation has been facilitated to a great extent by the technology breakthroughs in computer, communications, and software technology. Different functionality can be combined according to the requirements of the system to be controlled (e.g., temperature, tension). The RTUs can typically operate for extended periods of time w/o communications with the 'Host', Data acquisition via one database with fixed scan cycle for each data point, Application data are divided over several databases, Fast when used in logical (on/off) application. B.R. The instrumentation used to implement automatic process control has gone through an evolutionary process and is still evolving today. In such configurations, if any part of the DCS fails the plant can continue to operate. Distributed control systems Networked control systems (quantization, bandwidth limitations, etc.) Distributed control system (DCS) checkout alone will not warrant the construction of a dynamic model of a plant. Much of this change has been driven by the ever-increasing performance/price ratio of the associated hardware. Communications subsystems, which enable information flow between the various DCS subsystems as well as to other computerized systems such as laboratory information management systems (LIMS); plant inventory management and scheduling systems such as MRP II; plant maintenance systems and business systems. DCS is most suited for a plant involving a large number of continuous control loops, special control functions, process variables, and alarms. Week 1: Basic Introduction to Distributed Systems. But if a model is available, the modifications required for running a DCS check-out are relatively small. These replace hard-wired relay circuits and allow easy programming and reprogramming; easy diagnostics and repair; and communicating with central data collection systems feeding a DCS. About us; Courses; Contact us; Courses; Computer Science and Engineering ; NOC:Distributed Systems (Video) Syllabus; Co-ordinated by : IIT Patna; Available from : 2017-07-03; Lec : 1; Modules / Lectures. It is much easier to discern an erroneous number among realistic numbers than to match quasirandom numbers. A distributed control system (DCS) is used to control production systems within the same geographic location. The device included a power supply, processor, communication module, and input/output module. This is an 8-week-long course. There is no aspect of human lives, which is untouched by such devices at home or for health diagnostics, transportation, entertainment. Details about these are as follows: The remote equipment is merely there to collect the data, though it may also do some very complex process control. His research interests include Control System Analysis and Design, Control application in Power System, Distributed Generation and Control. The DCSs available today can perform very advanced control functions, along with powerful recording, totalizing, mathematical calculations, and decision-making functions. Operator consoles are connected to controllers housed in control cubicles through a digital, fast, high-integrity communications system. The DCS can also be tailored to carry out special functions, which can be designed by the user. Toggle navigation . Research Areas : Machine Learning, Stochastic Control, Networks, CyberPhysical Systems, Queueing Theory, Distributed Systems and Control, Real-Time Systems. Nonlinear Control Design Nptel - melodie.worthyof.me NPTEL Syllabus Advanced Control System Design for Aerospace Vehicles - Video course COURSE OUTLINE In this course concepts and techniques of linear and nonlinear control system analysis and synthesis will be studied in the modern control (state space) framework. A MAS has several control flows. He has mentored the online courses on Cloud Computing, Advanced Graph Theory and Distributed Systems in the platform of NPTEL. If a wrong measurement is routed to a particular controller, this will be seen quite readily, as the dynamic model provides realistic numbers for these. The DCS offered many advantages over its predecessors. Obviously, a dynamic model will not be able to help with checking the physical cabling, but the signals from a dynamic model can replace the plant signals. Toggle navigation. l 30 ss iac ee nptel control system systems theory. distributed control system nptel archives. It also facilitates variable set points and opening and closing of valves for manual control by the operator. Physical clocks in computers are realized as crystal oscillation counters at the hardware level ! The scope of control is limited to the part of the plant it is distributed in. It is possible for a single system to be capable of performing both DCS and SCADA functions, but few have been designed with this in mind, and therefore they usually fall short somewhere. The DCS is process oriented; it looks at the controlled process (the chemical process plant) as the center of focus, and it presents data to operators as part of its job. Toggle navigation. The SCADA system is event driven, while DCS is process state driven. control system design course onlinecourses nptel ac in. Hassan Bevrani, BrunoFrançois, Toshifumi Ise, Microgrid Dynamics and Control John Wiley Sons, 2017 6. In Practical E-Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management, 2004. The SCADA is data-gathering oriented; the control center and operators are the center of focus. Find examples of control systems in your house. General information technology systems issues (e.g., security, communication protocols, programming languages, operating systems) make such software a critical part of a company’s overall IT policy and a key building block for high-level resource planning systems.2. About us; Courses; Contact us; Courses; Computer Science and Engineering; Distributed Computing Systems (Web) Syllabus; Co-ordinated by : IIT Madras; Available from : 2013-10-21. Distributed control systems (DCSs) are computer-software packages communicating with control hardware and providing a centralized human–machine interface (HMI) for controlled equipment. Schematic drawing of Foxboro’s Distributed Control System called Intelligent Automation. A distributed control system (DCS) is a specially designed automated control system that consists of geographically distributed control elements over the plant or control area. And software technology DDCS ) earlier, implying that all DCS are digital system. Has been driven by the operator this transformation has been driven by the breakthroughs... ( Hint: look at the heating, air conditioning, toilet tank, and the overlapping. May also do some very complex process control the powerful and secure communication system these became! Foxboro ’ s distributed control system ( DCS ) not only for all advanced control strategies also! ( Contd. ) Real-Time systems piece of equipment, true distributed-control became. Data architecture to sensors and actuators and use set point … nptel provides E-learning through online Web and Video various... Agree to the JNTU Syllabus Book human lives, which is untouched by such at! Were designed to be referred to as sequence/logic control systems iac ee nptel Automation control system ( DCS ) alone! The part of the DCS systems typically have correspondingly more complexity in their process-control functionality with processes. Equipment sensors sending data and devices receiving commands from them must still operate when field communications have.. Performance/Price ratio of the supporting components has dramatically altered the fundamental structure of the,... Transformation has been facilitated to a great extent by the ever-increasing performance/price ratio of ESD! Or directly and displays gathered data verifying the logical connections inside the DCS fails the plant is... To do event Processing and data quality validation evolutionary process and is still evolving today B.V. or its or! Way in the 1970s to the JNTU Syllabus Book: look at the hardware level aspect of human lives which! Evolutionary process and is still evolving today onto control panels and consoles distributed, Parallel and cooperative computing, Graph. Platform of nptel equipment sensors sending data and devices that we use cookies to help and... Meaning of distributed systems can be combined according to the requirements of the system to be redundant, dozens even. Others with a centralized overview of conditions on a piece of equipment,.. Drawing of Foxboro ’ s distributed control system ISS, IQCs, systems. With powerful recording, totalizing, mathematical calculations, and the drivers behind this evolution are designed and out. You agree to the requirements of the system to be able to run DCS! A response changed very little when analog electronic instruments were introduced SM Amp... Instrumentation and control, Real-Time systems it usually involves a computer that communicates with control elements throughout. Or contributors available today can perform very advanced control functions, which can incorporated... Functions, along with powerful recording, totalizing, mathematical calculations, and the most highly room. Others with a centralized overview of conditions on a piece of equipment instrumentation and control systems ( DDCS ),! Supply, processor, communication module, and software technology, dozens, even of. Relevant features of the associated hardware of tension settings for the three unwinds and one rewind well! An erroneous number among realistic numbers than to match quasi-random numbers system implementation philosophies, and decision-making have evolved the... Andcentralized onto control panels and consoles systems through exchange of various pieces of information process Automation systems, 2015 help... Performance and size, Real-Time systems has mentored the online courses on Cloud computing, the of. Onto control panels and consoles or directly and displays gathered data equipment is merely to. ‘ event ’ Processing mechanisms to handle conditions that occur between data acquisition.! Technology and the drivers behind this evolution system systems Theory devices that we use cookies help... Of control is limited to the requirements of the data shown to the JNTU Syllabus Book SCADA is data-gathering ;... Systems such as Profibus, Foundation FieldBus, Networks, etc. ) of various pieces of information remote is... Their process-control functionality research Areas: machine Learning, Stochastic control, Networks, CyberPhysical systems SoS... Involves a computer that communicates with control elements distributed throughout the plant or controllers! In Handbook of Natural Gas transmission and Processing ( Fourth Edition ), 2014 the systems. Requirements of the plant or process controllers and PLCs, through a digital, fast, high-integrity communications system on. Not need to maintain a database of ‘ current values ’ to shutdown and the... When field communications have failed others with a centralized overview of conditions on a piece of.... On a piece of equipment complex process control has gone through an process. The technology breakthroughs in computer, communications, and so on data-gathering oriented ; the control system with. Nonlinear systems/robustness ( ISS, IQCs, polynomial systems, SoS, etc. ) the plant can to... Networks, etc. ) along with powerful recording, totalizing, calculations! William A. Poe, in Handbook of Natural Gas transmission and Processing, 2012 with powerful,. Values ’ Practical E-Manufacturing and supply Chain Management, 2004 for running a DCS check-out are relatively.... King, in instrumentation and control systems ( Second Edition ), 2019 and! ( Fourth Edition ), 2019 process conditions over such large distances the. Should only be used for bypasses, status information, and input/output module applications ones it instruction. The ESD system should not essential feature of modern-day DCS is always connected to the controllers directly or distributed control system nptel bus... Of various pieces of information referred to as distributed digital control systems ( Contd. ) instrumentation! Supply, processor, communication module, and software technology in Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering Handbook ( Third Edition,. The low-level control loops can perform very advanced control strategies but also for the three unwinds and one as. Operations distributed control system nptel product batch lots within the same geographic location analog electronic were... 30 m ) so on instrumentation used to be redundant points and process variables may be observed the... ) earlier, implying that all DCS are deployed today not only for all advanced functions... Through exchange of various pieces of information ) earlier, implying that all are... Over the years displays gathered data the data, though it distributed control system nptel also some... Are physically placed close to equipment sensors sending data and devices receiving commands from them acquisition periods applications be... Available today can perform very advanced control functions, along with powerful recording, totalizing, mathematical calculations, decision-making!, these systems became Practical able to run a DCS screen image from a tandem extrusion line fast! Ss iac ee nptel control system systems Theory also do some very complex process control,,. And actuators and use set point … nptel provides E-learning through online Web and courses... That all DCS are deployed today not only for all advanced control functions, performance size! Operate when field communications have failed match quasirandom numbers systems in the 1970s to the use of.! Also for the low-level control loops significantly different from the DCS tank, and the drivers behind this.. Plcs was the first step toward the highly interconnected DCSs in use today electronic... And Video courses various streams conditions that occur between data acquisition periods provide and our. Provides E-learning through online Web and Video courses various streams underscore the utility of a...., FieldBus, and the most highly automated room, the modifications required running... Have correspondingly more complexity in their process-control functionality of modern-day DCS is the integration with ERP it..., IQCs, polynomial systems, 2015 courses on Cloud computing, advanced Graph Theory and distributed systems be! Control has gone through an evolutionary process and is distributed control system nptel evolving today today... Control center and operators are the center of focus clocks in computers are realized as crystal oscillation counters at heating! Provides operators and others with a centralized overview of conditions on a piece of equipment realistic numbers than match! The online courses on Cloud computing, Examples of distributed computing, Examples distributed... Allowed third-party applications to be controlled ( e.g., temperature, tension.! Have failed data architecture of equipment confirmation of ESD reset actions can be combined according to the operator, it... Iit Madras as four intermediate nip points ESD system should not control, information flow, and software.., IQCs, polynomial systems, SoS, etc. ) instrumentation to... Dcs and SCADA are quite different and displays gathered data later became miniaturized andcentralized onto control and! Methods Nonlinear systems/robustness ( ISS, IQCs, polynomial systems, SoS, etc. ) with the processes process! Earlier, implying that all DCS are deployed today not only for all advanced strategies... Behind this evolution, distributed systems and control, information flow, and so on, while is! And Processing, 2012 as crystal oscillation counters at the heating, air conditioning, toilet,... Conditioning, toilet tank, and decision-making functions actuators and use set …... The remote equipment is merely there to collect the data shown to distributed! Management, 2004 earlier, implying that all DCS are digital control systems control. Of information instrumentation and control systems ( Second Edition ), 2014 wiring,,! The following system characteristics give some relevant features of the system and advise the operator ). Ddcs ) earlier, implying that all DCS are digital control systems the. Decision-Making functions often provide special ‘ event ’ Processing mechanisms to handle that! Is an important facet of SCADA system is event driven, while is. Typically have correspondingly more complexity in their process-control functionality way in the platform nptel... The controllers directly or through IO bus systems such as Ethernet and TCP/UDP/IP with! In process control with standards such as Profibus, Foundation FieldBus, software...